A Publication on World Pulp, Paper & Allied Industry


Special Report


Status of Environmental Protection and Control in Philippine Pulp and paper Mills
by Rosario B. Bantayan* and Dr. Ramon A. Razal**



Results of the study showed that the pulp and paper mills surveyed were equipped with effluent treatment facilities consisting of a combination of different primary and secondary treatment processes. The sludge from the wastewater treatment were dewatered, thickened and disposed by landfill operation. The control of air pollution was also evident based on the various technologies and practices cited by each mill. Solid wastes generated were either land filled, recycled or burned. The estimated cost of pollution control varied from mill to mill depending on the financial capability of the firm.

It was also found that pollution control measures adopted by Philippine pulp and paper mills depended upon the products produced, characteristics of the wastewater discharge, the desired level of treatment acceptable to the government and the capacity of the mill.

Table 6: Cost of Environmental Protection and Control 

Mill Type/Mill Capacity Cost of Environmental Protection and Control

1.  Non-integrated pulp mill    

PM 1 6,00-7,000

>P 10 million

PM 2 7,800

>P 10 million

2. Non Integrated paper mills
A 186,800 >P 10 million
B 4,000 P 1 million - P 5 million
C 14,000  
D 19,000 P 1 million - P 5 million
E 60,000 > P 10 million
F 10,100 P500 T - P 1 million
G 3,000 Below P 500 Thousand
H 30,000 > P 10 million
I 9,000 P 1 million - P 5 million
J 12,000 P 5 million - P 10 million
K 9,000 P 500 T - P 1 million
L 48,000 > P 10 million


P 1 million - P 5 million
N 9,000 P 1 million - P 5 million
O 135,000 > P 10 million
P 16,200 > P 10 million
Q 9,000 P 5 million - P 10 million
R 15,000 > P 10 million
S 13,500 > P 10 million
3. Integrated Pulp & Paper Mill

PP 1


> P 10 million

This study is just a first step towards determining pollution control measures adopted by pulp and paper mills. Future work in this area may be concentrated on actual abatement costs and other factors which affect the usage of pollution abatement technology, i.e., abatement efficiency of the treatment processes, skills and training required etc. The actual abatement cost should be measured in terms of the expenditure in pollution abatement and control (capital and operating expenses), costs in terms of human health and well being and cost due to the resulting environmental damages from production and disposal must be taken into consideration.

With regard to environmental laws and regulations, it is recommended that a separate set of effluent discharge and atmospheric emissions be specifically developed for Philippine pulp and paper industry. It has been noted that the same effluent standards apply to all types of industries. The government must take into consideration the nature of the pulp and paper industry in the development of regulations.

Considering the increasing costs of "end-of-pipe" treatments, it is also recommended that pulp and paper mills be encouraged to establish pollution prevention (P2) programs and adopt cleaner production (CP) technologies. Studies have shown that P2 can be achieved through source reduction, recycling or reuse, treatment and disposal. Eliminating pollution at or near the source has been found to be less expensive than collecting, treating and disposing of waste, thus, there is less risk to workers, community and environment (TLRC, 1999).

CP technologies, on the other hand, focus on production aspects whose main components include waste reduction, non-polluting production, energy efficiency, minimum environmental risks and environmentally sound products and packaging.

The government should provide incentives or financial assistance to those firms that are adopting CP technologies or establishing P2 programs. By doing so, the entire Filipino nation stand to benefit from environment-friendly business enterprises.

  • Amoth, A., Tu,Shih-Liang, and R. Yep. 1993. Meeting the Challenges of the Pulp and Paper Industry Environmental Issues. Paper Asia. For the Asia Pacific Pulp, Paper And Converting Industries Volume 8.

  • Aragon, P. 1995. Promising Outlook for Philippines Industry. Paper Asia for the Asia Pacific Pulp, Paper and Converting Industries. Volume 11. No. 2.

  • Development Bank of the Philippines. 1999. An Evaluation Guide for Environmental Projects in the Pulp and Paper Industry. Manila.

  • Freeman, H. M. 1995. Industrial Pollution and Prevention Handbook. Mc-Graw Hill. USA.

  • Gloria, M. Standards and Methods of Effluent Sampling, Measurement, and Testing. Paper presented at the TAPPIP Environmental Workshop on September 24, 1999 at the Philippine Trade Training Center. Manila.

  • List of Registered Firms as of April 2000. Board of Investments. Makati City.

  • Pamatmat, L. R. 1998. The Philippine Pulp and Paper Industry. Board of Investments. Manila.

  • The Philippine Pulp and Paper Industry at a Glance. MAP Environment Committee Supplement to April 1994 issue of MAP Memo. Case Study No. 02-94.

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