Glossary of Terms

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F & G: A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.
Felt: 1. Woven cloth used to carry and support the web of paper between press and dryer rolls on the paper machine. Synthetic felts are mainly used. Dryer felts of cotton or synthetic materials support the paper web through the dryer section.

2. A mark or imperfection in paper caused by a coarse or grainy character of the felt.
Felt Side: The side of the paper that does not touch the wire on the paper machine. The top side of felt is preferred for printing because it retains more fillers.
Fiber: Elongated, thick-walled cellular unit that is the structural component of woody plants.
Filler: A material such as china clay or calcium carbonate that is added to pulpstock to fill spaces between fibers and enhance printing properties of paper made from it.
Fine Papers: High-quality printing/writing and cover papers with excellent surface characteristics for writing.
Finish: Surface characteristics of paper, such as its smoothness, gloss and appearance.
Finishing: Paper processes that occur after the completion of papermaking operations, including supercalendering, slitting, rewinding, trimming, sorting, etc., prior to shipment from the mill.
Flexographic Printing: Printing from a relief image with a rubber or plastic plate, using liquid ink of solvent or water, plus pigment dyes. Used mainly for packaging products.
Fluff Pulp: Thick sheet or batt of woodpulp fibers manufactured in roll or bale form and suitable for dry disintegration into individual fibers.
Fluorescent Paper: Paper with a high reflective quality, resulting from colored, light-emitting dyestuff materials that reflect white light.

Folding (Machine Direction):

  Test made on paper by a folding endurance tester to measure the number of double folds that can be given to a strip of paper clamped between two jaws before it will break. This test gives an indication of the paperís ability to take abuse.
Formation: Physical distribution and orientation of fibers and other solid constituents in the structure of a sheet of paper that affects its appearance and other physical properties.
Fourdrinier Wire: Continuously traveling, endless, woven, metallic or plastic screen belt located in wet-end section of fourdrinier paper machine invented by Nicholas-Louis Robert. Pulpstock is fed onto wire so that water is drained from it as fibers become oriented to form a continuous web.
Freeness: The ability of pulp and water mixture to release or retain water on drainage.
Furnish: Various pulps, dyes, additives and other chemicals blended together in stock preparation area of paper mill and fed to wet end of paper machine to make paper or paperboard. Also called stock.



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