Glossary of Terms

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Calendar: The assembly of rolls at the dry end of the paper machine that imparts a finish to the paper and reduces the bulk and roughness.
Calendar Finished: Paper and paperboard that has been passed through a calendar to improve surface characteristics by application of pressure, friction and moisture.
Caliper: The thickness of a sheet of paper or paperboard measured under standard test conditions.
Carbonizing Paper: Lightweight, unquoted paper made from unbleached chemical and/or mechanical pulps and surfaces coated with a carbon solvent or wax so that it takes up carbon inks and releases them under pressure, duplicating the inked areas being printed.
Carbonless Paper: Copying paper that is coated so that it can be used without carbon coating or interleaved carbon paper.
Carload: A quantity of paper shipped from the mill in one freight car.
Cast-Coated Paper: High-gloss coated paper and paperboard with surface characteristics produced by allowing applied coating to harden while in contact with surface of steam-heated, high-polished, chrome-plated drum.
Cellulose: The chief constituent of the cell walls of all plants used to manufacture pulp.
Chemical Pulp: Pulp made by cooking the wood in the presence of chemical agents (acids or alkali) which eliminates most of the non-fibrous material.
Chemical Oxygen Demand: The amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic and oxidizable inorganic compounds of water.
Chipboard: Paperboard made primarily from waste paper used mainly in packaging, especially with a white liner and coating.
Chlorinated Organics: A group of compounds, such as DDT, that tend to remain in the environment for a long time and tend to accumulate inside the tissues of living organisms interfering with biological processes.
Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, poisonous gaseous chemical used in bleaching pulp and water purification in a pulp and paper mill.
Clarifiers: Storage tanks in which suspended solids settle and can be removed from green and white liquors. These are located in the causticizing areas of a pulp mill.
Closed-cycle mill: A pulp mill concept in which all liquid effluents are recovered, which eliminates water pollution by the mill.
Coated: Paper and paperboards that have been coated with a material such as clay or pigment and an adhesive.
Color:   The color of the coating mixture used to make the paper, which is either white or a specific color.
Combination Board: Multi-layered, cylinder-made paperboard with layers from different pulpstocks.
Containerboard: Another name for corrugated board used to make boxes and other containers for shipping materials.
Converter: A company that specializes in converting reels and sheets of paper and board into packaging or finished goods for sale to the public.
Cook: Treating fibrous raw materials with chemicals under heat and pressure to produce pulp for papermaking.
Cord: Pulpwood volume measurement indicating a pile measuring 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft., equaling 128 ft.
Copier/Laser Paper: Lightweight grades of good quality and dimensionally stable papers used in photocopying.
Coreboard: It is produced from 100% recycled fiber and needs to possess high stiffness and rigidity for core winding. Closely controlled absorbency and porosity are necessary to ensure good performance in conversion.
Cover Paper: A large category of papers used as a protective covering for books, pamphlets, magazines, catalogs and boxes.
Crepe Paper: Low-basis weight paper made from sulfite, sulfate or mechanical pulp and given a crinkly finish by crowding the web sheet over a roll with a doctor blade.
Cross Direction (CD): The direction across the paper grain.
Cunit: Pulpwood measurement equivalent to a volume containing 100 ft. solid of unpeeled wood.
Curl: Tendency of paper by itself to bend or partly wrap around the axis of one of its directions. Usually caused by nonuniform distribution of strains and stresses throughout the sheet as a result of uneven internal moisture and conditioning.
Cut Size: Fine paper cut to specific end-use dimensions on a paper trimmer, usually of the guillotine or rotary type.
Cylinder Machine: Machine used to make paperboard.



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