Glossary of Terms

Alphabetical Index          

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  a* (ClE Starlab):   Refers to the system used to describe and measure color. a* indicates redness, a positive value, and greenness, a negative value.
Abrasion Resistance: The ability of a paper product to withstand abrasion. The degree and rate a sample loses weight under specific rubbing action by an abrading surface measures resistance.
Abrasive Papers: Papers covered on one or two sides with abrasive powder.
Absorbency: Property of pulp, paper or board to retain materials it contacts such as liquid, gas and solid substances.
Absorbent Papers: Examples include duplicator, blotting, filter papers, drying royal, matrix paper and toweling.
Accepted Stock: Part of stock that is not rejected by cleaning and/or screening.
Acrylic: A water-soluble polymer used in paints to make them dry to a tough and flexible consistency.
Additive: A mineral, chemical or dye added to pulp and coatings to give it special qualities such as opacity.
Against the Grain: Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper.
Aging: The deterioration of paper properties over time. Sunlight and heat accelerate loss of strength and brightness.
  Air Dry:   Term applied to any pulp and paper sample that has a moisture content in equilibrium with the surrounding atmospheric conditions. Air-dry pulps are assumed to contain 10% moisture.
Album Paper: Wood pulp paper with an antique finish used for photo album pages.
Alum: A papermaking chemical used for precipitating rosin size onto pulp fibers to impart water-resistant properties to the paper. It is also called aluminum sulfate.
Antiquarian: The largest available handmade paper (53 x 31 inches).
Antique: A printing paper with a rough finish but good printing surface. It is valued in book printing for its high volume characteristics.
Antitarnish Paper: A term originally applied to higher-weight tissues used for wrapping silverware, but now used for all papers prepared so they will not rust or discolor razor blades, needles, silverware, etc.
Apparent Density: Weight (mass) per unit volume of a sheet of paper obtained by dividing the basis weight by the caliper (thickness).
Archival Paper: A paper that can last normally 100 years. The paper is acid free, lignin free and has good color retention.
Avg. Brightness:   The percentage of reflectivity of a sheet of pulp or paper for blue light measured under specific standard conditions. Not necessarily related to color or whiteness.
Azure: The light blue color used in the nomenclature of "laid" and "wove" papers.



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